Difference between revisions of "Picturephone"

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[[image: /Users/Tzvi/Desktop/Untitled1.jpg|thumb|250px|right| Early Ad (ProQuest)]
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The videophone, for much of the 20th century, seemed like the logical successor to the telephone. Millions were interested in buying it and using it, and there were many interested parties who wanted to see it come about from an engineer’s perspective.  In actuality, however, the technological and economical barriers always kept the device one step behind mass expectations, leading to what one AT&T historian calls “the most famous failure in the history of the Bell system” (qtd. in Guernsey).  The Bell Laboratories version, dubbed the Picturephone, was the most publicized incarnation of the videophone for decades.
  
The videophone, for much of the 20th century, seemed like the logical successor to the telephone.  Millions were interested in buying it and using it, and there were many interested parties who wanted to see it come about from an engineer’s perspective.  In actuality, however, the technological and economical barriers always kept the device one step behind mass expectations, leading to what one AT&T historian calls “the most famous failure in the history of the Bell system” (qtd. in Guernsey).  The Bell Laboratories version, dubbed the Picturephone, was the most publicized incarnation of videophone for decades, thus this wiki discusses mainly this version.
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=Creation=
 
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==Early Inception and Development==
=Early Inception and Development=
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The idea to send pictures along with a telephone signal had been around and was being tinkered with in Bell Laboratories “as early as 1927,” at this time however, the technology was not available to be able to do so with any efficiency or reliability.  For this to occur, it took until the mid-1950s.  At this time, with the invention of the transistor, as well as the availability of “inexpensive and reliable camera and display tubes,” finally, “technology was beginning to catch up with the concept” (Carson 284).
The idea to send pictures along with a telephone signal had been around and been tinkered with in Bell Laboratories “as early as 1927,” at this time however, the technology was not available to be able to do so with any efficiency or reliability.  For this it took until the mid-1950s.  At this time, with the invention of the transistor, as well as the availability of “inexpensive and reliable camera and display tubes,” finally, “technology was beginning to catch up with the concept” (Carson 284).
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Concurrently, on August 23rd 1955, across the country, two California mayors spoke to each other through a videophone from about a mile away from each other.  This was the first demonstration of a videophone, which had been developed by Kay Lab in San Diego.  At this time, spokesmen predicted the videophone would make a large impact on American life sometime in the 1960s, at first in factories and hospitals.  At this demonstration, the device consisted of a camera and two television screens, one seven inches, used to see oneself, and the other ten inches, used to see the person one is talking to.  Again, this demonstration was between subjects only a mile apart from each other. (“Gawkie-Talkie Telephone”).  
 
Concurrently, on August 23rd 1955, across the country, two California mayors spoke to each other through a videophone from about a mile away from each other.  This was the first demonstration of a videophone, which had been developed by Kay Lab in San Diego.  At this time, spokesmen predicted the videophone would make a large impact on American life sometime in the 1960s, at first in factories and hospitals.  At this demonstration, the device consisted of a camera and two television screens, one seven inches, used to see oneself, and the other ten inches, used to see the person one is talking to.  Again, this demonstration was between subjects only a mile apart from each other. (“Gawkie-Talkie Telephone”).  
  
Back at Bell Labs in New Jersey, in October of 1959, the Mod I Picturephone (Bell’s name for the videophone) was being put into the final phases of development “specifically for trial use.”  And by 1964 the Mod I was ready for testing.  The equipment came in three parts: a display, a specially modified telephone, and a power source.  “The display unit contained a cathode-ray picture tube, a vidicon camera tube, the scanning, synchronization and other video circuits, and a loudspeaker.  The telephone unit contained a conventional telephone handset, a microphone (to permit ‘hands-free’ operation), a set of touch-tone pushbuttons, and other push buttons for video control” (Carson 284).
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Back at Bell Labs in New Jersey, in October of 1959, the Mod I Picturephone was being put into the final phases of development “specifically for trial use.”  And by 1964 the Mod I was ready for testing.  The equipment came in three parts: a display, a specially modified telephone, and a power source.  “The display unit contained a cathode-ray picture tube, a vidicon camera tube, the scanning, synchronization and other video circuits, and a loudspeaker.  The telephone unit contained a conventional telephone handset, a microphone (to permit ‘hands-free’ operation), a set of touch-tone pushbuttons, and other push buttons for video control” (Carson 284).
  
The “general public’s first exposure” (which could possibly be contended by the above example in ’55), came at the World’s Fair in April 1964.  Booths were set up at the World’s Fair in New York, as well as at Disneyland, in Anaheim California, and members of the general public were allowed, for the first time, to actually try the new technology to talk to, and see, people across the country.  Opinions were generally favorable for the service, people enjoyed the “added personal touch of face-to-face,” however, there were some complaints about the equipment itself, mostly about the size and clarity of the picture, as well as the difficulty in keeping oneself centered onscreen.  These opinions, on the service and equipment, as well as how badly participants wanted a Picturephone were all recorded by Bell employees as a trial run for the system (Carson 284-6).  Interestingly, in an article covering this event in the New York Times, a Bell spokesman is quoted to have said “the instrument would not be available to the public in the near future” (“Television Phone Used”).  A quite near month later, meanwhile, the following headline appears in the same newspaper: “Picture Telephone Ready Next Month; Will Link 3 Cities.”  This article discusses the next faze of development for the Picturephone: booths.
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The “general public’s first exposure” (which could possibly be contended by the above example in ’55, although it is unclear whether or not this was a public demonstration), came at the World’s Fair in April 1964.  Booths were set up at the World’s Fair in New York, as well as at Disneyland, in Anaheim California, and members of the general public were allowed, for the first time, to actually try the new technology to talk to, and see, people across the country.  Opinions were generally favorable for the service, as people enjoyed the “added personal touch of face-to-face. There were however, some complaints about the equipment itself, mostly about the size and clarity of the picture, as well as the difficulty in keeping oneself centered onscreen.  These opinions on the service and equipment, as well as the public’s desire for a Picturephone were all recorded by Bell employees as a trial run for the system (Carson 284-6).  Interestingly, in an article covering this event in the New York Times, a Bell spokesman is quoted to have said “the instrument would not be available to the public in the near future” (“Television Phone Used”).  A quite near month later meanwhile, the following headline appears in the same newspaper: “Picture Telephone Ready Next Month; Will Link 3 Cities.”  This article discusses the next faze of development for the Picturephone: booths.
  
=Early Representations of Car Phones in Society=
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==Booth Service==
Before Car Phones became what they were as most people understand them today, many people had different ideas as to what would make a great portable telephone.  Here are a few examples of some of these bumps along the way.
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In June of 1964 “exploratory commercial service” began in three US cities.  Booths with Picturephones were put in at the Prudential Building in Chicago, the National Geographic Society Building in Washington, as well as Grand Central Station in New York.  These booths were accessible to the major public by appointment with telephone attendants who would put through all the necessary arrangementsInterestingly, Bell Labs itself admitted just a few years later in its report that “The attractiveness of this service is limited since both parties must go to a public booth to converseIt is apparent that this type of offering does not meet the needs of our customers” (Carson 286)Additionally, the exorbitant price of $21 between Washington and Chicago, $27 between Chicago and New York, and $16 between Washington and New York, couldn’t have helped (each price was for the first three minutes with additional fees per minute afterwards, “Picture Phones Go Into Service”).
[[image: ad-carphone.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Front Cover of the Seattle Times Claiming the Arrival of the Automobile Phone]]
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==Collins Wireless Telephone==
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Before Car Phones became a widespread phenomenon, there were several instances of people beginning to grapple with the concept of a "car phone." The first of these instances surrounded the Collins Mobile Telephone, and subsequent scandal thereafterFredick Collins, obsessed with the idea of creating Wireless Telegraphy after Marconi invented his wired telegraph, and spent much of his life attempting to makes these dreams a reality. In wanting to create a mobile telegraph, and subsequently, telephone, Collins saw the primary use to be used in cars. From an article in Modern Electronics from 1903:
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<blockquote>
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Either way, the booths were reported on, even if not used, extensively. Their installation was inaugurated with Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson making the first call to a Bell employee.  The service was available from 9 AM to 10 PM, seven days a week.  At this time, a spokesman reported that eventually Picturephones would “link most major cities here and abroad.”  Although he gave no forecast as to when they would be available in people’s homes. The screens used on this model of the Picturephones were the size of 4 3/8 inches by 5 3/4 inches (“Picture Phones Go Into Service”)
"Mr. Collins proposes to eliminate this decidedly adverse feature of automobiling by employing the wireless telephone. Consequently every garage or shop will be equipped with the wireless telephone, as they are now with the tire pump and ignition plugs, and this latter day telephone will always be set up ready for use. Likewise, every auto will be provided with a portable wireless telephone. Then in the event of the inevitable accident the 'phone can be taken out, set up ready for use and communication established with the nearest garage, and an auto with men and needful mechanism sent post haste to the scene to repair it." (Collins Wireless Telephone)</blockquote>
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Unfortunately, while Collins did have a short distance radio telephone (something closer to a walkie talkie than a telephone) working, his inventions never lived up to his "wild claims," and after several counts of stock fraud and fraudulent demonstrations, he was forced to close up shop, and his mobile automobile telephone was never realized.
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At this time, there are some interesting ideas in usage that appear in the New York Times for these Picturephone booths.  In one, a couple from New Jersey, shop for a house in Chicago, from the booth in Grand Central.  How the couple is shown these houses through a booth is unexplained, (perhaps with pictures of the homes), however it is one way, among many that the booth was used (“N.J. Couple Selects Home by ‘Picturephone’”).    Another interesting application was that used by businessmen to make sales of products, without having to leave their respective cities of operations.  This gives the opportunity for ‘face-to-face’ contact, as well as demonstration of the product without cost (both of time and money) or travel.  Although it might have been costly to use the booths, it made sense for businessmen, as they could make the money back from the sale, and also save money that would have been spent on traveling (Sloane).  At this time then, the Picturephone was used mostly for businesses and corporations.  This is where Bell would expend much of their efforts for now.
  
==Other Ideas  for Automobile Telephone==
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==Further Testing==
The Car Phone had many iterations of entrepreneurs and inventors trying to formulate exactly what the device was, as well as what it could be.  Notable patents which were passed included works by Charles H. Kikby, who invented what he called the "Automobile Telephone" in 1932This was simply a bank of payphones which was positioned into place where people who could make calls without having to leave their car (Automobile Telephone Patent).
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At this time, (April 1965), another test was started among the actual Bell Labs managerial staff.  This would allow for greater critical interest among the participants, as well as greater freedom in making modifications to the equipment as the testing was done in-house.  Next, trials were conducted within various other business settings to understand how the system could be used in a business environmentThe trial involved employees both in New York and Chicago. Finally, more testing was done in various other corporate settings using variations on the older model, which resulted in the creation of the Mod II (Carson 286-91)The difference between the older Mod I and the Mod II include a larger screen, a better camera tube, as well as a separate control unit, unattached to the display, which can zoom in and out (“Westinghouse Tests New Phone Units”).  These corporate settings within which the Picturephone was used was only within the realm of the trials thus far; corporations could not yet buy the systems.
  
Another interesting false start for the Car Phone is outlined in a patent for the "Automobile Radio and Communication System." This technology, patented by Alfred N. Goldsmith in 1939 allowed for vehicles within close proximity to talk to each other through their pre-existing car radios, much like CB radios that Long Haul Truckers use to communicate with each other today (Automobile Radio and Communication System Patent).
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=Hype=
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On June 30, 1970 the Bell Telephone System rolled out a commercial Picturephone service in Pittsburgh.  Again, initially this service was used only by businesses, however even still, one executive from the Bell Company stated his view “that the economic and social impact of electronic face-to-face communication would equal that made by the introduction of telephonic voice conversation in New Haven in 1878.”  Additionally estimates were made that rates would be low enough to make Picturephones feasible in homes by the 1980s.  This network only worked intra-Pittsburgh, however even still, the article goes on to praise the Picturephone and its capabilities for the future.  The Picturephone will be able to dial up computers and be used as a computer display to show balance sheets, stock market prices, and inventories.  Long distance job interviews, facsimile capabilities, as well as long distance contract signings were all promised by the article. In addition: “Home users will be able to shop by Picturephone, visit a library or hospital, hold family reunion or attend a lecture….  The police can display photographs or sketches of wanted persons.  A salesman can call his office computer for information to answer a customer’s questions or to find out what is in stock.”  These are all the future uses that this new technology, finally available commercially promised.  Finally, versions that could handle color and three-dimensional pictures were being worked on for rollout in the future (Janson).
  
The important consideration to remember is that the invention of the car phone was an organic development of technology, a type of hack to allow for mobile telephones to be used in a place where they could be marketed and used by individuals.
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Additionally, within the business world, in 1966 (when booths had been the sole availability of Picturephones) it had already been speculated by Eastern Airlines that Picturephones might help the travel industry, with the need for business trips being negated and runways being less congested (Video Phone Held an Aid to Transit”).  In December of 1970, it had been announced that Picturephones were placed in many of the offices of the President’s top aids.  (“Picturephones Placed in Offices of Tope Aides at White House”).  In 1975, a court case was tried with the use of Picturephones.  The lawyers were in New York, while the judges were in Washington (“TV Phone to Link Lawyers in City to Judges in Capital”).  These are just a few examples of the ways people were using, and aspired to use, the Picturephone in the late 60s and early 70s.  There was also talk of the device being used in hospitals and in education.
  
==The Media Creates Mystique: The Shoe and Bat Phone==
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==Usage For Deaf Individuals==
[[image: batphone.jpg|thumb|left|200px|bat phones were in use a good 15 years before widespread American adoption
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One of the more interesting ways that the Picturephone was supposed to have been able to be used was for deaf people. Because of the sight capabilities of the device, Deaf Individuals could communicate through sign language and lip reading.  In fact, two deaf teenagers took part in the inauguration of the Booth system in 1964 (“Picture Phones Go Into Service”).
(Private Online)]]
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[[image: shoephone.jpg|thumb|right|150px|Hello? Chief?    (Private Online)]]
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==Futurism==
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One of the most interesting ways the Picturephone was described though, was in how futuristic it was.  This can be seen in some of the myriad uses given in articles about the device, simple speculation on how it could possibly be used once it is universally accepted.  It was seen as the way of the future to have cheap Picturephone service, and be able to have this infrastructure as the main system of telephony in America.  This is the sum of these articles.  Every single one seems to yearn for the time in which we can all see each other whenever we want regardless of distance.  And yet the technology just seemed to fade away as time moved on.  As though the way of the Jetsons wasn’t meant to be for us.
  
There were many cases of mobile telephony which existed in fiction, which were technically feasible, but not yet available to the general public. Two of the best known examples are the "Batphone" and Maxwell Smart's Shoe phoneSuch visualizations of the near-future gave such television shows a feeling of excitement and provided a glimpse of what the future could allowWhile both of these examples may seem slightly silly,they serve to help us understand the awareness the public had on the uses and purposes of mobile telephones, and to normalize their benefits and use to the general public.
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=Skepticism=
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As early as 1956 editorials appeared that eschewed the up and coming technology.  This is before the technology was even revealed to the public.  John Gould, in his article, states “I can’t help asking why the Bell Boys spend so much time and energy, not to mention expense, to develop the picture-phone when there are still so many bugs still to be ferreted out of the talking kind. He continues to assert (in highly purposeful hyperbole) that soon after the Picturephone is introduced for widespread use “Pool rooms will close, rush-hour transportation will be even more inadequate, the birthrate will go up, we’ll need more and more schools, the tax rate will climb to hardship heights, financing will fail, the steel industry will go into a decline and we’ll have a depression. All this because some guy called home to say he’d be late on a Picturephone (as opposed to a regular phone), saw his wife, and decided he had to get home immediately.  He concludes, that even if the Picturephone is horrible, the novelty will amaze everyone, and “the more I think about it, the more I’d like to have one.”  Thus, even in this entirely scathing and facetious article, he concludes that even he wants one, and the novelty wears on.
  
=Mainstream Adoption and Societial Proliferation=
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In another editorial, “Technology: Miracles Aren’t Enough,the Picturephone is written off as an old trick: “Picturephone service is old hat; it has been demonstrated to work, and will be offered commercially in selected areas next year” (Pierce). This as early as 1970, when the service isn’t even yet offered commercially, much less in people’s homes and it is already considered by some to be old technology. The next day, another editorial appears, “The Burdens of Technology,” that warns of new technologies: “Young and old people are questioning the values of technological progress; the accusation is that technology deals only with material values and pays no attention to other values and pays no attention to other values that have to do with peace of mind, love, happiness, even contemplation.”  Later in this same editorial the author discusses the Picturephone that will change the way we live (Fubini). He does not address whether this device will help any of the earlier problems that technology has failed to.  We can only assume that he does not believe so.  These issues though, along with the unbearably high expectations that the idea of futurology had ascribed to the device can perhaps help elucidate as to why the device failed so miserably, without ever really getting off the ground in the consumer market.
[[image: motorolla.jpg|thumb|right|250px|1981 (Proquest)]]
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==Marketing==
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Upon first entering the market place, the car phone was promoted as a crucial facilitator for the modern businessperson, and eventually for the modern family. Large telecommunications companies promoted the new technology as a way for “people with drive [to] improve their performance” (Chicago Tribune). As evidenced by Western Union’s mid 80’s ad campaign, the car phone was marketed as a tool for success. The advertisements appeal to people with high-end cars, whose time is in high demand such as young business professionals. One advertisement from a 1984 edition of the LA Times makes claims about producing a phone that is finally “worthy of the car it goes into” and addresses “people in the fast track [who] don’t have time to wait up to half an hour for a telephone line” (LA Times).  
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This kind of ad tactic was crucial to the success of the car phone because the initial purchase price was astronomical, even by today’s standards for cellular technology. Initially, the price of just the phone could reach up to $3,000, however as the technology became newer the price of phones fell to around $1,000 (Mehegan). Due to this prerequisite, advertisers targeted the young business elite, a demographic with expendable cash and a desire to progress in the business world. Ads emphasize the advantage owners of a car phone would have over other businessmen, working hard to imbue the technology with status and clout. Like many technologies, the car phone was marketed as a solution to a problem that consumers had barely yet thought of: being unable to work when not at work. The car phone, in conjunction with early personal computers, marked the beginning of a generation of technology based on the idea of constant accessibility. An idea that the medium simultaneously introduces, and resolves for the early 1980’s business person.
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=Failure=
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In July of 1971, a full year after the Picturephone service went commercial, an article appears in the NY Times that describes its slow growth as disappointing to the Bell company.  They had predicted that along with the 25 Picturephones ordered at the time the service was released, 150 more would be ordered within the year. In actuality, since its release, 16 had been installed and 8 disconnected.  Of those, only 12 are even able to dial outside the building, the others merely being used for in-house intercoms. One user called it an impersonal form of communication, as both you and the person you’re talking to show up grey.  This comes less than a decade after its premier at the World’s Fair where the Picturephone had been described as more personal than the telephone. In this same article, another Bell spokesman guesses that they would not be available for use in residences until the 1990s (Rensberger).  The date had gotten pushed back again.
  
The car phone coincided with the beginnings of a great technological boom, one which we are still experiencing. At the time, new technology was blossoming all around the unwitting consumer. In an economically stable time when many young college graduates were scoring high earning jobs, the flashy new media with a high initial investment rate found a toehold. All of this was facilitated by the popularization of credit cards, and an overall abstraction of money. In 1988 the U.S. government officially started accepting credit cards, separating the concept of money from dollar bills at the most official state level (Tolchin). This ultimately linked the power of the consumer with the new buying demographic of young urban professionals, a group which would later colloquialize itself into the category “yuppies” (Batutis).
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An article looking back, in April of 2000, suggests that the main testament to the failure of this product was a “gap between what can be created and what people actually want” (Guernsey). There are many issues involved in this, most pervasively that of privacy. Because the phone can ring at any given time, would people want to be seen at any given time?  Another issue could be that of inattentiveness, While on the telephone, one can many do many other things without the person on the other line realizing, whereas a videophone would require one’s full attention.
  
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Nonetheless, “in1972, AT&T pulled the plug.”  In addition to the reasons above, this may have been due to facts like the high cost of the product, as well as the low acceptance level (as one can only use the product if the recipient of the call has one too), however, one AT&T historian says it may be much simpler: “It turned out that it wasn’t entirely clear that people wanted to be seen on a telephone” (qtd. in Guernsey).
  
==The Symbiosis of Beepers and Mobile Car Phones==
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=Successors=
An interesting parallel technology which also became popular at the same time as the car phone was the beeper.  Socially the beeper served as a way in which to contract an individual when they may have not been close to an identifiable phone, and were perhaps used to contact people at times in which they couldn’t take a call, much in the same way SMS messages are used today.  While beepers are technically separate devices, they did rely on the same network, and allowed more people to stay in contact with a network which could scale to levels of everyone having their own personal car phone.
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For years, indeed decades after, new types of technologies were rolled out along the same linesMany different teleconferencing technologies had been adopted, although none that really changed the face of business, as they were slow to be accepted by many. Many different telephone add-ons that would enable video to be transmitted in addition to audio were rolled out, but not accepted by most. The only vastly successful technology to really take hold and penetrate into the homes of many has been the web cam.  These Internet cameras are now built into monitors, and can be purchased separately, relatively inexpensively, and are used through high-speed Internet to connect people thousands of miles away. The reason for their success is, perhaps, because of the low price of the camera, as well as the lack of price for service, since they work through the Internet many people have anyway. For now, this is the best choice many have of actually seeing their loved ones from a distance, and the Picturephone remains a distant memory.
 
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==Shortcomings==
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The new technology of the car phone had a few limitations that were met with social outcry. First, the car phone proved to be a much less private medium than the business elites who invested in them would have preferred. The early cellular technology on which the phone functioned was easily eavesdropped by electronic scanners (Colleen). These scanners were legal, and easily obtained from any electronics store. People would scan car phones maliciously and purely for the entertainment (Costa). This worried many car phone users, and privacy was a concern like never before. Some invested hundreds of dollars for scramblers, however most people just ignored the threat (Colleen).
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Second, another shortcoming of the car phone was that actually speaking on it was a driving hazard. The niche of the media itself caused public disgruntlement as the technology which was marketed to keep you safer and more in touch, actually was likely to cause you to get into a crash (“Hello”). Around the late 80’s, more strict car phone regulations were in place, or at least, more stern warnings (Ward). This was merely the beginning of a long battle between the “use anywhere” idea of ever advancing technology, and safety. For example, only since the summer of 2008 is it required to use a hands free device while driving in the State of California.
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=Death=
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Despite its popularity and a solid following of enthusiasts, advances in technology (specifically digital technology), sounded the death knell for the car phone.
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==Enhanced 9-1-1 (E911)==
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In 1996 the FCC introduced wireless Enhanced 911 (E911) so that mobile phones could now provide 911 dispatchers with information technology that allows them to locate the geographical position of mobile phones and see the mobile telephone number of the originating call (FCC).
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When the car phone was first introduced to consumer markets it was targeted at the wealthy (most commonly businessmen). It was first promoted as an integrated status-symbol and business device that allowed individuals to perform their jobs more efficiently by staying connected while out of the office. However, the large successful adoption of the car phone by businessmen drove up the device's popularity and broadened its consumer market reach. Car phone users became more diverse - for example, it was common for housewives, who spent much of their days running errands and driving children around in their cars, to use car phones to keep in touch while out of the house.
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In order to appeal to the new consumer market the promotion of car phones switched from focusing on business capabilities to focusing on mobility. And, as consumers began to demand such mobility they also began to expect similar standards of service on their car phones as were available on land-line telephones. However, it was this shift in focus that paved the way to the death of the car phone. This is because, ironically, the death of the car phone was brought about by the Federal Communication Commission’s desire to improve emergency service. Ultimately, since the car phone lacked E911, consumers were unable to integrate it fully into their lives - it lacked basic and fundamental properties found in land-line phone services. This meant that the car phone was not mobile enough because it was incapable of replicating the ability of landlines to always be connected (i.e., always have 911 available).
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Prior to 1996, people who called 911 on mobile phones had to access their service providers (to verify subscription service from a cellular service provider) before their call was put through to a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). In 1996 the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) ruled that a 911 call must instead go directly to a PSAP. Furthermore, the FCC required that all mobile phones manufactured and sold after February 13, 2000 using analog networks must have a method for processing 911 calls (FCC). 
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The FCC implemented the E911 rules in two phases. In 1998, Phase I required carriers to identify the call’s originating number and provide it to PSAPs. It also required that the location of the caller be accurate to within 1 mile. In 2001, Phase II required carriers to provide the latitude and longitude of 911 calls within 50 to 300 meters. The deployment of E911 also required either upgrades for existing equipment or the development of new equipment (FCC).
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==Analog==
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In February 2008 the Federal Communications Commission allowed mobile operators, the largest including AT&T Wireless and Verizon Wireless, to shut down their analog (AMPS – Advanced Mobile Phone System) networks, the successor to the IMTS network. Unfortunately, all car phones were operating on this analog system. At the same time, rural mobile operators also shut down AMPS. This resulted in all mobile phones being serviced by digital networks (GSM – Global System for Mobile Communications or CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access). The outcome was that all mobile phones (including the large established base of car phones) operating on analog networks (approximately 1% of all mobile phones) became inoperable (Washington Post).
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Analog technology (along with the car phone) failed because it was unreliable compared to digital technology; using analog service for communication with a car phone often led to voice distortion and complete loss of signal. This increased consumers' fears over the lack of safety - what would happen if they got into a car accident in an area not covered by a good analog signal? If they were unable to notify proper authorities with their car phone, would they not receive necessary assistance?
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=Future=
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[[image: onstar.jpg|thumb|right|250px|OnStar]]
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==OnStar==
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So what has replaced the car phone? One of the early entrances into the in-vehicle communication category following the car phone was OnStar. In 1995 OnStar was created by General Motors (GM), Electronic Data Systems, and Hughes Electronics Corporation. However, GM became responsible for designing, integrating, and distributing OnStar capabilities for vehicles.
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OnStar is an in-vehicle three-button safety and security system that provides:
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<blockquote>
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* 24-hour access to an advisor
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* Connection to emergency services
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* Hands-free calling
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</blockquote>
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:: (OnStar)
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[[image: bluetooth.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Bluetooth (via Lexus)]]
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==Bluetooth==
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But not all drivers need, want, or have access to all the services built into OnStar. Instead, the advancement of technology, specifically mobile phones on digital networks, has become the most popular alternative. One of the reasons for their success is that most digital phones are able to use Bluetooth, a short-range wireless communications technology capable of replacing the cables needed to connect devices (invented in 1994).  It has achieved global acceptance and is successful at connecting any Bluetooth enabled device, anywhere in the world, to other Bluetooth enabled devices (up to 7) in close proximity (approximately 30 feet). Bluetooth is able to simultaneously handle both data and voice transmissions – this provides innovations such as a hands-free headset for voice calls (Bluetooth). In short, Bluetooth has become the perfect substitute for the car phone.
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Lexus has been one of the leaders in implementing Bluetooth technology in their automobiles in the past few years. The company manufactures some of the world’s most technologically sophisticated vehicles – including many that come with built in Bluetooth as a standard feature. This technology works by connecting any Bluetooth equipped cell phone to the vehicle itself – allowing calls to be made and received through the car’s built-in touch screen or controls on the steering wheel. Drivers can talk without holding their cell phone and hear through the car’s audio system (Lexus).
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Bluetooth’s hands-free capability has increased the technology’s popularity globally. For example, in 2004 Japan (like many other parts of the world) began enforcing stricter laws and penalties against using a cell phone while driving. However, because Bluetooth allows drivers to stay more focused on the road and less on their phone calls, it has allowed drivers to stay connected even with the new laws. In turn, this has increased the popularity and production of Bluetooth technologies in cars around the world (The Nikkei Weekly, Japan).
+
 
+
 
+
Both OnStar and Bluetooth are modern day examples of what the car phone was intended to do but was unable to do successfully. Had the car phone not been limited by the lack of E911 (full mobility) and the structure of analog I would imagine it would have incorporated many of the capabilities (i.e., safety, mobility, convenience) that have made OnStar and Bluetooth so successful today.
+
 
+
  
 
=Works Cited=
 
=Works Cited=
 +
Carson, D.N. “The Evolution of Picturephone Service.” The Telephone: An Historical Anthology Ed. George Shiers 1977. Reprinted from Bell Laboratories Record,Vol. 46, October 1968. Pp.282-291
  
Batutis, Michael. “Yuppies: Who are they?” St. Petersburg Times. Lexis Nexis.  25 May 1987. <lexisnexis.com>
+
Fubini, Eugene. “The Burdens of Technology” The New York Times. 12 Jan 1970, New York NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
 
+
Bluetooth. “Basics.” Bluetooth. 25 Sept. 2008. <http://www.bluetooth.com/Bluetooth/ Technology/Basics.htm>.
+
 
+
Car Phone Seattle Times ad, via FCC , 1903 <http://www.fcc.gov/omd/history/radio/ideas.html>
+
 
+
Costa, Louisa. “Car Phone Sales up Despite Scanners.” Sydney Morning Herald. Lexis Nexis. 3 Dec 1986. <lexisnexis.com>.
+
 
+
Colleen, Ryan. “Bookie Spends $18,000 to Thwart Electronic Snoops.” Sunday Mail. Lexis Nexis. 29 Mar. 1987. <lexisnexis.com>
+
 
+
Cooper et al. Radio Telephone System. Cooper et al., assignee. Patent 3906166. 1975.
+
 
+
"Display Ad 1503 -- No Title. " New York Times (1857-Current file)  [New York, N.Y.] 3  May 1981,WC5, ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851 - 2005). ProQuest. NYU.  3 Oct. 2008 <http://www.proquest.com/>
+
 
+
"Display Ad 63 -- No Title. " Los Angeles Times (1886-Current File)  [Los Angeles, Calif.] 1  Dec. 1986, c4. ProQuest Historical Newspapers Los Angeles Times (1881 - 1986). ProQuest.  NYU.  3 Oct. 2008 <http://www.proquest.com/>
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"Display Ad 63 -- No Title. " Los Angeles Times (1886-Current File)  [Los Angeles, Calif.] 19  Jun 1984, e7. ProQuest Historical Newspapers Los Angeles Times (1881 - 1986). ProQuest.  NYU.  3 Oct. 2008 <http://www.proquest.com/>
+
 
+
"Display Ad 20 -- No Title. " Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file)  [Chicago, Ill.] 31  Mar. 1986, pg A5, ProQuest Historical Newspapers Chicago Tribune (1849 - 1986). ProQuest.  NYU. 3 Oct. 2008 <http://www.proquest.com/>
+
 
+
"Display Ad 540 -- No Title." New York Times (1857-Current file).  New York, N.Y.:Sep 28, 1975.  p. 165 (1 pp.)
+
  
Dubilier, William,  "The Collins Wireless Telephone"  Modern Electrics, August, 1908 via (http://www.sparkmuseum.com/COLLINS2.HTM)
+
“Gawkie-Talkie Telephone is Here At Last!”. Chicago Daily Tribune. 24 Aug 1955. Chicago, Il. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Farley, Tom. "History of the Mobile Phone." Mobile Telephone History. Privatelone (via FCC). 14 Oct. 2008 <http:// http://www.privateline.com/pcs/history.htm>.
+
Gould, John. “Picture, Please!” The New York Times. 16 Sep 1956. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Farley, Tom. "Mobile Phone History." Mobile Phone History. 20 Feb. 2002. 14 Oct. 2008 <http://affordablephones.net/historymobile.htm>.
+
Guesnsey, Lisa. “The Perpeetual Next Big Thing.” The New York Times. 13 Aug 2000. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). “Enhanced 9-1-1 (E911).” FCC. 25 Sept. 2008. <http://www.fcc.gov/hspc/factsheets/enhanced911.pdf>.  
+
Janson, Donald. “Picture-Telephone Service Is Started in Pittsburgh.” The New York Times. 1 Jul 1970. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Federal Communications Commission (FCC). “Enhanced 911 – Wireless Services.” FCC. 25 Sept. 2008. <http://www.fcc.gov/pshs/services/911-services/enhanced911/Welcome.html>.  
+
“N.J. Couple Selects Home by ‘Picturephone.’” The New York Times. 7 Nov 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Goldsmith, Alfred N. AUTOMOBILE RADIO AND COMMUNICATION. Radio Corporation of America, assignee. Patent 2138598. 1938.
+
“Picture Phones Go Into Service.” The New York Times. 25 Jun 1964. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
“Hello? Hello? Cruuuunch!Newsweek. Lexis Nexis. 9 July, 1984. Pg. 59. <lexisnexis.com> .
+
“Picture Telephone Ready Next Month; Will Link 3 Cities.The New York Times. 12 May 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Kikby, Charles H. AUTOMOBILE TELEPHONE. CHARLES H. KIKBY, assignee. Patent 1912376. 1933.
+
“Picturephones Placed in Offices Of Tope Aides at White House.” The New York Times. 3 Dec 1970. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Lexus. “Bluetooth Phone – Overview.” Lexus. 22 Sept. 2008. <http://lexus.letstalk.com>.  
+
Pierce, John R. “Technology: Miracles Aren’t Enough.” The New York Times. 11 Jan1970. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Mehegan, David. “Cellular One Turns Up the Heat.” The Boston Globe Online. Lexis Nexis. 31 Oct. 1988. <lexisnexis.com>.
+
Rensberger, Boyce. “Growth of Picturephones Disappoints Bell System.” The New York Times. 3 Jul 1971. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
OnStar. “OnStar Explained.” OnStar. 22 Sept. 2008. <http://www.onstar.com/us_English/jsp/ explore/index.jsp>.  
+
Sloane, Leonard. “Picturephone Helps to Sell Over Hundreds of Miles.” The New York Times. 3 Jan 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Shimbun, Nihon Keizai. “Carmakers using Bluetooth for Wireless Convenience.” The Nikkei Weekly [Japan]. 15 Jan. 2007. ProQuest. NYU. 23 Sept. 2008. <http://www.proquest.com>.  
+
“Television Phone Used From Fair to California.” The New York Times. 21 Apr 1964. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Tolchin, Martin. “U.S. Plans Wide Use of Credit Cards.” The New York Times. Lexis Nexis. 1 Mar. 1988. <lexisnexis.com>.
+
“TV Phone to Link Lawyers In City to Judges in Capital.” The New York Times. 7 Nov 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Ward, Daniel. “Using car phones on the move ‘a danger.’” The London Times. Lexis Nexis. 2 Mar. 1987. <lexisnexis.com>
+
“Video Phone Held an Aid to Transit.The New York Times. 19 Jun 1966. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.
  
Washington Post. “Most Analog Cellular to Fade Away Next Week.” Washington Post. 15 Feb. 2008. ProQuest. NYU. 23 Sept. 2008. <http://www.proquest.com>.
+
“Westinghouse Tests New Phone Units.” The New York Times. 6 Feb 1969. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

Revision as of 22:14, 4 November 2008

The videophone, for much of the 20th century, seemed like the logical successor to the telephone. Millions were interested in buying it and using it, and there were many interested parties who wanted to see it come about from an engineer’s perspective. In actuality, however, the technological and economical barriers always kept the device one step behind mass expectations, leading to what one AT&T historian calls “the most famous failure in the history of the Bell system” (qtd. in Guernsey). The Bell Laboratories version, dubbed the Picturephone, was the most publicized incarnation of the videophone for decades.

Creation

Early Inception and Development

The idea to send pictures along with a telephone signal had been around and was being tinkered with in Bell Laboratories “as early as 1927,” at this time however, the technology was not available to be able to do so with any efficiency or reliability. For this to occur, it took until the mid-1950s. At this time, with the invention of the transistor, as well as the availability of “inexpensive and reliable camera and display tubes,” finally, “technology was beginning to catch up with the concept” (Carson 284).

Concurrently, on August 23rd 1955, across the country, two California mayors spoke to each other through a videophone from about a mile away from each other. This was the first demonstration of a videophone, which had been developed by Kay Lab in San Diego. At this time, spokesmen predicted the videophone would make a large impact on American life sometime in the 1960s, at first in factories and hospitals. At this demonstration, the device consisted of a camera and two television screens, one seven inches, used to see oneself, and the other ten inches, used to see the person one is talking to. Again, this demonstration was between subjects only a mile apart from each other. (“Gawkie-Talkie Telephone”).

Back at Bell Labs in New Jersey, in October of 1959, the Mod I Picturephone was being put into the final phases of development “specifically for trial use.” And by 1964 the Mod I was ready for testing. The equipment came in three parts: a display, a specially modified telephone, and a power source. “The display unit contained a cathode-ray picture tube, a vidicon camera tube, the scanning, synchronization and other video circuits, and a loudspeaker. The telephone unit contained a conventional telephone handset, a microphone (to permit ‘hands-free’ operation), a set of touch-tone pushbuttons, and other push buttons for video control” (Carson 284).

The “general public’s first exposure” (which could possibly be contended by the above example in ’55, although it is unclear whether or not this was a public demonstration), came at the World’s Fair in April 1964. Booths were set up at the World’s Fair in New York, as well as at Disneyland, in Anaheim California, and members of the general public were allowed, for the first time, to actually try the new technology to talk to, and see, people across the country. Opinions were generally favorable for the service, as people enjoyed the “added personal touch of face-to-face.” There were however, some complaints about the equipment itself, mostly about the size and clarity of the picture, as well as the difficulty in keeping oneself centered onscreen. These opinions on the service and equipment, as well as the public’s desire for a Picturephone were all recorded by Bell employees as a trial run for the system (Carson 284-6). Interestingly, in an article covering this event in the New York Times, a Bell spokesman is quoted to have said “the instrument would not be available to the public in the near future” (“Television Phone Used”). A quite near month later meanwhile, the following headline appears in the same newspaper: “Picture Telephone Ready Next Month; Will Link 3 Cities.” This article discusses the next faze of development for the Picturephone: booths.

Booth Service

In June of 1964 “exploratory commercial service” began in three US cities. Booths with Picturephones were put in at the Prudential Building in Chicago, the National Geographic Society Building in Washington, as well as Grand Central Station in New York. These booths were accessible to the major public by appointment with telephone attendants who would put through all the necessary arrangements. Interestingly, Bell Labs itself admitted just a few years later in its report that “The attractiveness of this service is limited since both parties must go to a public booth to converse. It is apparent that this type of offering does not meet the needs of our customers” (Carson 286). Additionally, the exorbitant price of $21 between Washington and Chicago, $27 between Chicago and New York, and $16 between Washington and New York, couldn’t have helped (each price was for the first three minutes with additional fees per minute afterwards, “Picture Phones Go Into Service”).

Either way, the booths were reported on, even if not used, extensively. Their installation was inaugurated with Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson making the first call to a Bell employee. The service was available from 9 AM to 10 PM, seven days a week. At this time, a spokesman reported that eventually Picturephones would “link most major cities here and abroad.” Although he gave no forecast as to when they would be available in people’s homes. The screens used on this model of the Picturephones were the size of 4 3/8 inches by 5 3/4 inches (“Picture Phones Go Into Service”).

At this time, there are some interesting ideas in usage that appear in the New York Times for these Picturephone booths. In one, a couple from New Jersey, shop for a house in Chicago, from the booth in Grand Central. How the couple is shown these houses through a booth is unexplained, (perhaps with pictures of the homes), however it is one way, among many that the booth was used (“N.J. Couple Selects Home by ‘Picturephone’”). Another interesting application was that used by businessmen to make sales of products, without having to leave their respective cities of operations. This gives the opportunity for ‘face-to-face’ contact, as well as demonstration of the product without cost (both of time and money) or travel. Although it might have been costly to use the booths, it made sense for businessmen, as they could make the money back from the sale, and also save money that would have been spent on traveling (Sloane). At this time then, the Picturephone was used mostly for businesses and corporations. This is where Bell would expend much of their efforts for now.

Further Testing

At this time, (April 1965), another test was started among the actual Bell Labs managerial staff. This would allow for greater critical interest among the participants, as well as greater freedom in making modifications to the equipment as the testing was done in-house. Next, trials were conducted within various other business settings to understand how the system could be used in a business environment. The trial involved employees both in New York and Chicago. Finally, more testing was done in various other corporate settings using variations on the older model, which resulted in the creation of the Mod II (Carson 286-91). The difference between the older Mod I and the Mod II include a larger screen, a better camera tube, as well as a separate control unit, unattached to the display, which can zoom in and out (“Westinghouse Tests New Phone Units”). These corporate settings within which the Picturephone was used was only within the realm of the trials thus far; corporations could not yet buy the systems.

Hype

On June 30, 1970 the Bell Telephone System rolled out a commercial Picturephone service in Pittsburgh. Again, initially this service was used only by businesses, however even still, one executive from the Bell Company stated his view “that the economic and social impact of electronic face-to-face communication would equal that made by the introduction of telephonic voice conversation in New Haven in 1878.” Additionally estimates were made that rates would be low enough to make Picturephones feasible in homes by the 1980s. This network only worked intra-Pittsburgh, however even still, the article goes on to praise the Picturephone and its capabilities for the future. The Picturephone will be able to dial up computers and be used as a computer display to show balance sheets, stock market prices, and inventories. Long distance job interviews, facsimile capabilities, as well as long distance contract signings were all promised by the article. In addition: “Home users will be able to shop by Picturephone, visit a library or hospital, hold family reunion or attend a lecture…. The police can display photographs or sketches of wanted persons. A salesman can call his office computer for information to answer a customer’s questions or to find out what is in stock.” These are all the future uses that this new technology, finally available commercially promised. Finally, versions that could handle color and three-dimensional pictures were being worked on for rollout in the future (Janson).

Additionally, within the business world, in 1966 (when booths had been the sole availability of Picturephones) it had already been speculated by Eastern Airlines that Picturephones might help the travel industry, with the need for business trips being negated and runways being less congested (Video Phone Held an Aid to Transit”). In December of 1970, it had been announced that Picturephones were placed in many of the offices of the President’s top aids. (“Picturephones Placed in Offices of Tope Aides at White House”). In 1975, a court case was tried with the use of Picturephones. The lawyers were in New York, while the judges were in Washington (“TV Phone to Link Lawyers in City to Judges in Capital”). These are just a few examples of the ways people were using, and aspired to use, the Picturephone in the late 60s and early 70s. There was also talk of the device being used in hospitals and in education.

Usage For Deaf Individuals

One of the more interesting ways that the Picturephone was supposed to have been able to be used was for deaf people. Because of the sight capabilities of the device, Deaf Individuals could communicate through sign language and lip reading. In fact, two deaf teenagers took part in the inauguration of the Booth system in 1964 (“Picture Phones Go Into Service”).

Futurism

One of the most interesting ways the Picturephone was described though, was in how futuristic it was. This can be seen in some of the myriad uses given in articles about the device, simple speculation on how it could possibly be used once it is universally accepted. It was seen as the way of the future to have cheap Picturephone service, and be able to have this infrastructure as the main system of telephony in America. This is the sum of these articles. Every single one seems to yearn for the time in which we can all see each other whenever we want regardless of distance. And yet the technology just seemed to fade away as time moved on. As though the way of the Jetsons wasn’t meant to be for us.

Skepticism

As early as 1956 editorials appeared that eschewed the up and coming technology. This is before the technology was even revealed to the public. John Gould, in his article, states “I can’t help asking why the Bell Boys spend so much time and energy, not to mention expense, to develop the picture-phone when there are still so many bugs still to be ferreted out of the talking kind.” He continues to assert (in highly purposeful hyperbole) that soon after the Picturephone is introduced for widespread use “Pool rooms will close, rush-hour transportation will be even more inadequate, the birthrate will go up, we’ll need more and more schools, the tax rate will climb to hardship heights, financing will fail, the steel industry will go into a decline and we’ll have a depression.” All this because some guy called home to say he’d be late on a Picturephone (as opposed to a regular phone), saw his wife, and decided he had to get home immediately. He concludes, that even if the Picturephone is horrible, the novelty will amaze everyone, and “the more I think about it, the more I’d like to have one.” Thus, even in this entirely scathing and facetious article, he concludes that even he wants one, and the novelty wears on.

In another editorial, “Technology: Miracles Aren’t Enough,” the Picturephone is written off as an old trick: “Picturephone service is old hat; it has been demonstrated to work, and will be offered commercially in selected areas next year” (Pierce). This as early as 1970, when the service isn’t even yet offered commercially, much less in people’s homes and it is already considered by some to be old technology. The next day, another editorial appears, “The Burdens of Technology,” that warns of new technologies: “Young and old people are questioning the values of technological progress; the accusation is that technology deals only with material values and pays no attention to other values and pays no attention to other values that have to do with peace of mind, love, happiness, even contemplation.” Later in this same editorial the author discusses the Picturephone that will change the way we live (Fubini). He does not address whether this device will help any of the earlier problems that technology has failed to. We can only assume that he does not believe so. These issues though, along with the unbearably high expectations that the idea of futurology had ascribed to the device can perhaps help elucidate as to why the device failed so miserably, without ever really getting off the ground in the consumer market.

Failure

In July of 1971, a full year after the Picturephone service went commercial, an article appears in the NY Times that describes its slow growth as disappointing to the Bell company. They had predicted that along with the 25 Picturephones ordered at the time the service was released, 150 more would be ordered within the year. In actuality, since its release, 16 had been installed and 8 disconnected. Of those, only 12 are even able to dial outside the building, the others merely being used for in-house intercoms. One user called it an impersonal form of communication, as both you and the person you’re talking to show up grey. This comes less than a decade after its premier at the World’s Fair where the Picturephone had been described as more personal than the telephone. In this same article, another Bell spokesman guesses that they would not be available for use in residences until the 1990s (Rensberger). The date had gotten pushed back again.

An article looking back, in April of 2000, suggests that the main testament to the failure of this product was a “gap between what can be created and what people actually want” (Guernsey). There are many issues involved in this, most pervasively that of privacy. Because the phone can ring at any given time, would people want to be seen at any given time? Another issue could be that of inattentiveness, While on the telephone, one can many do many other things without the person on the other line realizing, whereas a videophone would require one’s full attention.

Nonetheless, “in1972, AT&T pulled the plug.” In addition to the reasons above, this may have been due to facts like the high cost of the product, as well as the low acceptance level (as one can only use the product if the recipient of the call has one too), however, one AT&T historian says it may be much simpler: “It turned out that it wasn’t entirely clear that people wanted to be seen on a telephone” (qtd. in Guernsey).

Successors

For years, indeed decades after, new types of technologies were rolled out along the same lines. Many different teleconferencing technologies had been adopted, although none that really changed the face of business, as they were slow to be accepted by many. Many different telephone add-ons that would enable video to be transmitted in addition to audio were rolled out, but not accepted by most. The only vastly successful technology to really take hold and penetrate into the homes of many has been the web cam. These Internet cameras are now built into monitors, and can be purchased separately, relatively inexpensively, and are used through high-speed Internet to connect people thousands of miles away. The reason for their success is, perhaps, because of the low price of the camera, as well as the lack of price for service, since they work through the Internet many people have anyway. For now, this is the best choice many have of actually seeing their loved ones from a distance, and the Picturephone remains a distant memory.

Works Cited

Carson, D.N. “The Evolution of Picturephone Service.” The Telephone: An Historical Anthology Ed. George Shiers 1977. Reprinted from Bell Laboratories Record,Vol. 46, October 1968. Pp.282-291

Fubini, Eugene. “The Burdens of Technology” The New York Times. 12 Jan 1970, New York NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“Gawkie-Talkie Telephone is Here At Last!”. Chicago Daily Tribune. 24 Aug 1955. Chicago, Il. Accessed through ProQuest.

Gould, John. “Picture, Please!” The New York Times. 16 Sep 1956. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

Guesnsey, Lisa. “The Perpeetual Next Big Thing.” The New York Times. 13 Aug 2000. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

Janson, Donald. “Picture-Telephone Service Is Started in Pittsburgh.” The New York Times. 1 Jul 1970. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“N.J. Couple Selects Home by ‘Picturephone.’” The New York Times. 7 Nov 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“Picture Phones Go Into Service.” The New York Times. 25 Jun 1964. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“Picture Telephone Ready Next Month; Will Link 3 Cities.” The New York Times. 12 May 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“Picturephones Placed in Offices Of Tope Aides at White House.” The New York Times. 3 Dec 1970. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

Pierce, John R. “Technology: Miracles Aren’t Enough.” The New York Times. 11 Jan1970. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

Rensberger, Boyce. “Growth of Picturephones Disappoints Bell System.” The New York Times. 3 Jul 1971. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

Sloane, Leonard. “Picturephone Helps to Sell Over Hundreds of Miles.” The New York Times. 3 Jan 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“Television Phone Used From Fair to California.” The New York Times. 21 Apr 1964. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“TV Phone to Link Lawyers In City to Judges in Capital.” The New York Times. 7 Nov 1965. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“Video Phone Held an Aid to Transit.” The New York Times. 19 Jun 1966. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.

“Westinghouse Tests New Phone Units.” The New York Times. 6 Feb 1969. New York, NY. Accessed through ProQuest.